A Systematic Review on the Distribution and Density of Aedes Species in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan Countries


  • Punya Ram Sukupayo Department of Zoology, Bhaktapur Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bhaktapur, Nepal
  • Ram Chandra Poudel Molecular Biotechnology Unit, Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Lalitpur, Nepal
  • Tirth Raj Ghimire Department of Zoology, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal




Abundance, Aedes, Aedes distribution, altitudinal gradients, anthropogenic factors, chikungunya, climate change, culicidae, dengue, Hindu-Kush Himalaya, mosquitoes, mosquito-borne diseases, public health, vector control, zika virus


Aedes mosquitoes are effective carriers of virus pathogens such as chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, zika, and other viruses, leading to high morbidity and mortality. This review compiles information on the geographical distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Hindu-Kush Himalayas (HKH). Articles published in SCI-indexed journals from 2000 to 2022 have been reviewed using the key words "Aedes”, "distribution", and "country name (e.g., Nepal)”. A total of 353 articles have been indexed, of which only 52 were ultimately explored. The review highlights a historical prevalence of Aedes spp. in the HKH countries, with their distribution gradually shifting along altitude gradients. Surging dengue cases in the HKH region pose a public health threat. Urgent action is required, including comprehensive nationwide surveys mapping Aedes spp. across diverse altitudes.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Sukupayo, P. R., Poudel, R. C., & Ghimire, T. R. (2024). A Systematic Review on the Distribution and Density of <i>Aedes</i> Species in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan Countries. Indian Journal of Entomology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.55446/IJE.2024.1392



Research Articles


Aditya G, Pramanik M K, Saha G K. 2009. Immatures of Aedes aegypti in Darjeeling Himalayas - expanding geographical limits in India. Indian Journal of Medical Research 129: 455-457.

Aditya G, Tamang R, Sharma D, Subba F, Saha G K. 2008. Bamboo stumps as mosquito larval habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas, India: A spatial scale analysis. Insect Science 15: 245-249.

Ashfaq M, Hebert P D N, Mirza J H, Khan A M, Zafar Y, Mirza M S. 2014. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity in Pakistan by DNA Barcoding. PLoS ONE 9: e97268.

Aslamkhan M. 1971. The mosquitoes of Pakistan: I. A checklist. Mosquito Systematic Newsletter 3: 147-159.

Attaullah M, Gul S, Bibi D, Andaleeb A, Ilahi I, Siraj M, Ahmad M, Ullah I, Ali M. Ahmad S, Ullah Z. 2021. Diversity, distribution and relative abundance of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Biology 83: e247374. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.247374

Barraud P J. 1934. Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Taylor and Francis.

Bashar K, Rahman, Md S, Nodi I J, Howlader A J. 2016. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Pathogens and Global Health 110: 48-61.

Benedict M Q, Levine R S, Hawley W A, Lounibos L P. 2007. Spread of the tiger: global risk of invasion by the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases 7: 76-85.

Bhat H. 1975. A survey of haematophagous arthropods in Western Himalayas, Sikkim and Hill Districts of West Bengal: records of mosquitoes collected from Himalayan region of West Bengal and Sikkim with ecological notes. Indian Journal of Medical Research 63: 232-241.

Borah H, Bora D S. 2022. Ecological and social determinants of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larval habitat in northeastern India. International Journlal of Mosquito Research 9: 47-55.

Cao Y, Fu S, Tian Z, Lu Z, He Y, Wang H, Wang J, Guo W, Tao B, Liang G. 2011. Distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in Inner Mongolia, China. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic diseases 11: 1577-1581.

Choi Y, Tang C S, McIver L, Hashizume M, ChanV, Abeyasinghe R R, Iddings S, Huy R. 2016. Effects of weather factors on dengue fever incidence and implications for interventions in Cambodia. BMC Public Health 16: 241.

Dar T, Natarajan R, Jayakumar S, Purusothaman J. 2016. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, India, with new records. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 4: 388-393.

Darsie R F, Courtney G W, Pradhan S P. 1996. Notes on the mosquitoes of Nepal IV: Results of the 1994 collecting in the Midwestern Region, including new country records and voucher confirmation (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 12: 130-134.

Darsie R F, Courtney G W, Pradhan S P. 1993. Notes on the mosquitoes of Nepal: III. Additional new records in 1992 (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics 25: 186-191.

Darsie R F, Pradhan S, Vaidya R G. 1992. Notes on the mosquitoes of Nepal: II. New species records from 1991 collections. Mosquito Systematics 24: 23-28.

Darsie R F, Pradhan S P. 1990. The mosquitoes of Nepal: Their identification, distribution and biology. Mosquito Systematics 22: 69-130.

Darsie R F, Pradhan S P, Vaidya R D. 1991. Notes on the mosquitoes of Nepal I. New country records and revised Aedes keys (Diptera, Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics 23: 39-45.

Das B, Tripathy H K, Kar S K, Hazra R K. 2015. Spatial distribution of Aedes mosquitoes with special attention to bionomics of Aedes albopictus subpopulations collected from various parts of Odisha. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 52: 104-107.

Devi N P, Jauhari R K. 2004. Altitudinal distribution of mosquitoes in mountainous area of Garhwal region : Part I. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 41: 17-26.

Devi S, Kaura T, Kaur J, Lovleen Takkar J, Sharma S, Grover G. 2020. Prevalence of dengue vectors, larval breeding habitats, Stegomyia indices and their correlation with dengue cases in urban and rural areas of Punjab, India. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 57: 176.

Dhimal M, Ahrens B, Kuch U. 2014. Species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern Nepal. Parasites Vectors 7: 540.

Dhimal M, Gautam I, Joshi H D, O’Hara R B, Ahrens B, Kuch U. 2015. Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in Central Nepal. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9: e0003545.

Dorji T, Yoon I-K, Holmes E C, Wangchuk S, Tobgay T, Nisalak A, Chinnawirotpisan P, Sangkachantaranon K, Gibbons R V, Jarman R G. 2009. Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan. Emerging Infection Diseases 15: 1630-1632.

Dutta P, Khan S, Khan A, Sharma C, Mahanta J. 2010. An updated checklist of species of Aedes and Verrallina of Northeastern India. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 26: 135-140.

Ebi K L, Nealon J. 2016. Dengue in a changing climate. Environmental Research 151: 115-123.

Fatima S H, Atif S, Rasheed S B, Zaidi F, Hussain E. 2016. Species distribution modelling of Aedes aegypti in two dengue-endemic regions of Pakistan. Tropical Medicine and International Health 21: 427-436.

Ferdousi F, Yoshimatsu S, Ma E, Sohel N, Wagatsuma Y. 2015. Identification of essential containers for Aedes larval breeding to control dengue in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Tropical Medical Health 43: 253-264.

Gaffigan T V, Wilkerson R C, Pecor E, Stoffer J A, Anderson T. 2022. Systematic catalog of culicidae - walter reed biosystematics unit - home [WWW Document]. Systematic Catlog of Culicidae. URL

Gautam I, Dhimal M N, Shrestha S R, Tamrakar A S. 2009. First record of Aedes aegypti (L.) vector of dengue virus from Kathmandu, Nepal. Journal of Natural History Museum 24: 156.

Global Warming Effects (WWW Document). 2019. Environment. URL https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/global-warming-effects. Accessed 11.27.22.

Guo X, Yang H, Wu C, Jiang J, Fan J, Li H, Zhu J, Yang Z, Li Y, Zhou H, Zhang J. 2015. Molecular characterization and viral origin of the first dengue outbreak in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China, 2013. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93: 390-393.

Guo Y, Song Z, Luo L, Wang Q, Zhou G, Yang D, Zhong D, Zheng X. 2018. Molecular evidence for new sympatric cryptic species of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in China: A new threat from Aedes albopictus subgroup? Parasites Vectors 11: 1-14.

Guo Y-H, Lai S-J, Huang Q, Ren D-S, Zou J.-H, Liu Q.-Y, Zhang H.-Q. 2016. Coexistence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Jinghong City, Yunnan Province: A survey of Aedes aegypti Invasion. Journal of Tropical Diseases 4: 1-6.

Haq, I. ul, Singh, S., 2021. Diversity of Mosquito Fauna in different Habitats of District Dehradun, Uttarakhand. International Journal of Current Microbiology Applied Sciences 10, 583-589.

Harbach R. 2022a. Culicidae classification | Mosquito Taxonomic Inventory (WWW Document). Mosquito Taxonomic Inventory. URL https://mosquito-taxonomic-inventory.myspecies.info/ simpletaxonomy/term/6045. Accessed 9.19.22.

Hawkes F M, Hopkins R J. 2022. The mosquito, mosquitopia: The place of pests in a healthy world [Internet]. Routledge.

Hira F S, Asad A, Farrah Z, Basit R S, Mehreen F, Muhammad K. 2018. Patterns of occurrence of dengue and chikungunya, and spatial distribution of mosquito vector Aedes albopictus in Swabi district, Pakistan. Tropical Medicine and International Health 23: 1002-1013.

ICIMOD. 2019. The Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment: Mountains, climate change, sustainability and people. Springer International Publishing, Kathmandu, Nepal. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92288-1

IDRC. 1996. International Development Research Centre. Proceedings Workshop held at the Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal, in: Karki M, Rao A N, Rao V Y, Williams J T. (eds.), INBAR Technical Report No. 15. Biodiversityinternational.org, Pokhara, Nepal. pp. 771-811. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36275-1_40

Ilahi I, Suleman M. 2013. Species composition and relative abundance of mosquitoes in Swat, Pakistan 2: 454-463.

IOM. 2011. Finding what works in health care: standards for systematic reviews. National Academies Press (US), Washington, DC. https://doi.org/10.17226/13059

Irish S R, Al-Amin H M, Alam M S, Harbach R E. 2016. A review of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of Bangladesh. Parasites Vectors 9: 559.

Islam S, Haque C E, Hossain S, Hanesiak J. 2021. Climate variability, dengue vector abundance and dengue fever cases in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A time-series study. Atmosphere 12: 905.

Islam S, Haque C E, Hossain S, Rochon K. 2019a. Role of container type, behavioural, and ecological factors in Aedes pupal production in Dhaka, Bangladesh: An application of zero-inflated negative binomial model. Acta Tropica 193: 50-59.

Islam S, Haque C E, Hossain S, Rochon K. 2019b. Role of container type, behavioural, and ecological factors in Aedes pupal production in Dhaka, Bangladesh: An application of zero-inflated negative binomial model. Acta Tropica 193: 50-59.

Jabeen A, A J, Ikram A A, Khan M, Tahir M A, Safdar M. 2019. A review of the geographical distribution of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and other Aedes species (Diptera: Culicidae) in Pakistan 6: 90-95.

Kadamov D. 2006. The bloodsucking mosquitoes (Culicidae) of North Afghanistan. Meditsinskaia parazitologiia i parazitarnye bolezni. pp. 59-60.

Kaur J. 2021. Mosquito diversity (Diptera: Culicidae) of Baddi, Himachal Pradesh and surrounding areas. Journal of Entomological Research 45: 33-38.

Kaur R. 2003. An update on the distribution of mosquitoes of the Tribe Aedini in India (Diptera: Culicidae). Oriental Insects 37: 439-455.

Kawada H, Futami K, Higa Y, Rai G, Suzuki T, Rai S K. 2020. Distribution and pyrethroid resistance status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations and possible phylogenetic reasons for the recent invasion of Aedes aegypti in Nepal. Parasites Vectors 13: 213.

Khan K N, Ali M, Zahid M, Ahmad W. 2022. Diversity of mosquitoes collected from the southern areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Journal of Gandhara Medical and Dental Sciences 9: 3-8.

Kpan M D S, Adja A M, Guindo-Coulibaly N, Assouho K F, Kouadio A M N, Azongnibo K R M, Zoh D D, Zahouli B Z J, Remoue F, Fournet F. 2021. Spatial heterogeneity and seasonal distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L) in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 21: 769-776.

Kramer I M, Pfenninger M, Feldmeyer B, Dhimal M, Gautam I, Shreshta P, Baral S, Phuyal P, Hartke J, Magdeburg A, Groneberg D A, Ahrens B, Müller R, Waldvogel A-M. 2022. Genomic profiling of climate adaptation in Aedes aegypti along an altitudinal gradient in Nepal indicates non-gradual expansion of the disease vector (preprint). Genomics. https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.04.20.488929

Kumar G, Pasi S, Ojha V, Dhiman R. 2020. Entomological investigation of an outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in Solan district, Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 57: 301-306.

Liu X, Liu Q. 2020. Aedes surveillance and risk warnings for dengue-China, 2016-2019. China CDC Wkly 2: 431-437.

Manzoor F, Shabbir R, Sana M, Nazir S, Khan M A. 2020. Determination of species composition of mosquitoes in Lahore, Pakistan. Journal of Arthropod Borne Diseases 14: 106-115.

Mordecai E A, Ryan S J, Caldwell J M, Shah M M, LaBeaud A D. 2020. Climate change could shift disease burden from malaria to arboviruses in Africa. The Lancet Planetary Health 4: e416–e423. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30178-9

Oo S S, Mon T L, Aung N N, Ei T, Soe Toe Toe, Su A A, Soe K K, Lwin K M, Soe Thin Thin, Htwe, M L. 2020. Seasonal prevalence of Aedes aegypti in semi-urban area of Yangon Region, Myanmar. AE 08, 107-116. https://doi.org/10.4236/ae.2020.83008

Oo T T, Stroch V, Madon M B, Becker N. 2011. Factors influencing the seasonal abundance of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and the control strategy of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever in Thanlyin Township,Yangon City, Myanmar. Tropical Biomedicine 28: 302-311.

Pandey B D, Nabeshima T, Pandey K, Rajendra S P, Shah Y, Adhikari B R, Gupta G, Gautam I, Tun M M N, Uchida R, Shrestha M, Kurane I, Morita K. 2013. First isolation of dengue virus from the 2010 Epidemic in Nepal. Tropical Medcal Health 41: 103-111.

Paul K K, Dhar-Chowdhury P, Haque C E, Al-Amin H M, Goswami D R, Kafi M A H, Drebot M A, Lindsay L R, Ahsan G U, Brooks W A. 2018. Risk factors for the presence of dengue vector mosquitoes, and determinants of their prevalence and larval site selection in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS ONE 13, e0199457.

Peters W, Dewar S. 1956. A preliminary record of the megarhine and culicine mosquitoes of Nepal with notes on their taxonomy (Diptera: Culicidae). Indian Journal of Malariology 10: 37-51.

Rahman Md S, Faruk Md O, Tanjila S, Sabbir N M, Haider N, Chowdhury S. 2021. Entomological survey for identification of Aedes larval breeding sites and their distribution in Chattogram, Bangladesh. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 10: 32.

Rajavel A R, Natarajan R, Vaidyanathan K. 2004. A checklist of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Pondicherry India with notes on new area records. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 20: 228-232.

Ramachandran V G, Roy P, Das S, Mogha N S, Bansal A K. 2016. Empirical model for estimating dengue incidence using temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity: a 19-year retrospective analysis in East Delhi. Epidemiol Health 38: e2016052. https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016052

Rao T R. 1967. Distribution, Density and seasonal prevalence of Aedes aegypti in the Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asia. Bulletin of World Health Organization 36: 547-551.

Reinhold J, Lazzari C, Lahondère C. 2018. Effects of the environmental temperature on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes: A review. Insects 9: 1-17.

Rueda L M, Pecor J E, Lowen R G, Carder M. 2008. New record and updated checklists of the mosquitoes of Afghanistan and Iraq. Journal of Vector Ecology 33: 397-402.

Russell P K, Gould D J, Yuill T M, Nisalak A, Winter P E. 1969. Recovery of dengue-4 viruses from mosquito vectors and patients during an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 18: 580-583.

Sahak M N. 2020. Dengue fever as an emerging disease in Afghanistan: Epidemiology of the first reported cases. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 99: 23-27.

Selvan P S, Jebanesan A, Divya G. 2020. Species diversity and seasonal abundance in relation to environmental factors in different agro climatic zones of Tamil Nadu, India. Annals of Infectious Disease and Epidemiology 5: 14.

Shalini P, Shriram A N, Elango A, Natarajan R, Vijayakumar B, Raju K H K, Dengel L, Gunasekaran K, Kumar A. 2022. Mosquito diversity in an experimental township in Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Medical Entomology 59: 1615-1624.

Shriram A N, Sivan A, Sugunan A P. 2017. Spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in relation to geo-ecological features in South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Bulletin of Entomology Research 166-174.

Singh S P. 2011. Climate change in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: the state of current knowledge. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu.

Tandina F, Doumbo O, Yaro A S, Traoré S F, Parola P, Robert V. 2018. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and mosquito-borne diseases in Mali, West Africa. Parasites Vectors 11: 1-12.

Tedjou A N, Kamgang B, Yougang A P, Wilson-Bahun T A, Njiokou F, Wondji C S. 2020. Patterns of ecological adaptation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Stegomyia Indices highlight the potential risk of arbovirus transmission in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon. Pathogens 9: 491.

Teurlai M, Menkès C E, Cavarero V, Degallier N, Descloux E, Grangeon J.-P, Guillaumot L, Libourel T, Lucio P S, Mathieu-Daudé F, Mangeas M. 2015. Socio-economic and climate factors associated with dengue fever spatial heterogeneity: a worked example in New Caledonia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disreases 9: e0004211.

Tsheten T, Clements A C A, Gray D J, Wangchuk S, Wangdi K. 2020. Spatial and temporal patterns of dengue incidence in Bhutan: a Bayesian analysis. Emerging Microbes and Infections 9: 1360-1371.

Tuladhar R, Singh A, Banjara M R, Gautam I, Dhimal M, Varma A, Choudhary D K. 2019. Effect of meteorological factors on the seasonal prevalence of dengue vectors in upland hilly and lowland Terai regions of Nepal. Parasites Vectors 12: 42.

UN. 2015. THE 17 GOALS | Sustainable development [WWW Document]. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. URL https://sdgs.un.org/goals. Accessed 10.12.22.

Vijayakumar K, Kumar T K S, Nujum Z T, Umarul F, Kuriakose A. 2014. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 51: 27-32.

Wang Z-M, Xing D, Wu Z-M, Yao W-J, Gang W, Xin D-S, Jiang Y-F, Xue R-D, Dong Y-D, Li C-X, Guo X-X, Zhang Y-M, Zhao T-Y. 2012. Biting activity and host attractancy of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Manzhouli, China. Journal of Medical Entomology 49: 1283-1288.

Wangchuk S, Chinnawirotpisan P, Dorji Tshering, Tobgay T, Dorji Tandin, Yoon I-K, Fernandez S. 2013. Chikungunya fever outbreak, Bhutan, 2012. Emerging Infectections Diseases 19: 1681-1684.

Ward R A. 1972. Mosquitoes of Afghanistan - an annotated checklist. pdf. Mosquito Systematics 4: 93-97.

Watson R T, Zinyowera M C, Moss R H. 1996. Climate change 1995: impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: scientific-technical analyses: contribution of Working Group II to the second assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press.

Wei Y, Wang J, Song Z, He Y, Zheng Z, Fan P, Yang D, Zhou G, Zhong D, Zheng X. 2019. Patterns of spatial genetic structures in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in China. Parasites Vectors 12: 1-15.

WHO. 2022a. Dengue – Bangladesh (WWW Document). URL https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2022-DON424. Accessed 1.26.23.

WHO. 2022b. Dengue - Pakistan (WWW Document). URL https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2022-DON414. Accessed 1.26.23.

Withanage G P, Viswakula S D, Nilmini Silva Gunawardena, Y I, Hapugoda M D. 2018. A forecasting model for dengue incidence in the district of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Parasites Vectors 11: 262.

Wu F, Liu Q, Lu L, Wang J, song X, ren D. 2011. Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northwestern China. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 11: 1181-1186.

Yang Y, He Y, Zhu G, Zhang J, Gong Z, Huang S, Lu G, Peng Y, Meng Y, Hao X, Wang C, Sun J, Shang S. 2021. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Wolbachia in field-collected Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in China. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 15: 1-18.

Yee D. 2022. Less than 10% of mosquito species spread human disease [WWW Document]. Entomology Today. URL https://entomologytoday.org/2022/07/26/less-than-10-percent-mosquito-species-spread-human-disease/. Accessed 11.7.22.

Yue Y, Liu Q, Liu X, Zhao N, Yin W. 2022. Dengue fever in mainland China, 2005-2020: A descriptive analysis of dengue cases and Aedes data. IJERPH 19: 3910.

Zangmo S, Klungthong C, Chinnawirotpisan P, Tantimavanich S, Kosoltanapiwat N, Thaisomboonsuk B, Phuntsho K, Wangchuk S, Yoon I-K, Fernandez S. 2015. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of dengue virus circulating in Bhutan, 2013-2014. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9: e0004010.

Zhang F-C, Zhao H, Li L-H, Jiang T, Hong W-X, Wang J, Zhao L-Z, Yang H-Q, Ma D-H, Bai C-H, Shan X-Y, Deng Y-Q, Qin C-F. 2014. Severe dengue outbreak in Yunnan, China, 2013. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 27: 4-6.

Zhou Y, Liu H, Leng P, Zhu J, Yao S, Zhu Y, Wu H. 2021. Analysis of the spatial distribution of Aedes albopictus in an urban area of Shanghai, China. Parasites Vectors 14, 501.