Comparative Study on Ectoparasitic Tick Abundance and Diversity on Goats and Cows


  • P Princy PG and Research Department of Zoology, St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Devagiri, Kozhikode 673008, Kerala, India.
  • P Aswathi PG and Research Department of Zoology, St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Devagiri, Kozhikode 673008, Kerala, India.
  • K NandAkrishnan PG and Research Department of Zoology, St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Devagiri, Kozhikode 673008, Kerala, India.



Domestic Animals, Cows, Goats, Livestock, Ectoparasites, Ticks, Diversity, Abundance, Host Specificity, Tick-Borne Diseases, Seasonal Variation, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Annulatus, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, Hyalomma anatolicum, Boophilus sp.


Ectoparasitic infestation is one of the threats to the growth of the livestock industry. Ticks, one of the most notorious groups of ectoparasites on livestock, create issues for cattle rearers by causing a wide range of diseases like babesiosis, theleriosis, anaplasmosis, KFD, CCHF, etc. In addition, conditions like tick worry, metabolic debilitation, secondary infections, and loss of large quantities of blood due to parasitic feeding also pose severe health issues. The current study analyzed the ectoparasitic tick infestation on goats and cows, the common domesticated animals in south India. Gaining from rearing these animals support the economic status of the rural peoples of the region. The study discussed the abundance, diversity, and host selectivity of the ticks recorded from the area. Additionally, the role of each species in transmitting various diseases in animals and humans is also discussed.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Princy, P., Aswathi, P., & NandAkrishnan, K. (2023). Comparative Study on Ectoparasitic Tick Abundance and Diversity on Goats and Cows. Indian Journal of Entomology, 86(1), 70–74.



Research Articles


Ajith Y, Dimri U, Gopalakrishnan A, Devi G. 2017. A study on prevalence and factors associated with ectoparasitism in goats of two agro-climatic regions in India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 41(3): 739-746.

Antunes S, Galindo R C, Almazán C, Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Grubhoffer L, Shkap V, Virgílio do Rosário, José de la Fuente, Domingos A. 2012. Functional genomics studies of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Annulatusticks in response to infection with the cattle protozoan parasite, Babesia Bigemina. International Journal for Parasitology 42(2): 187-195.

Balasubramanian R, Yadav P D, Sahina S, Nadh V A. 2019. Distribution and prevalence of ticks on livestock population in endemic area of Kyasanur forest disease in Western Ghats of Kerala, South India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 43(2): 256-262.

Chhabra, M B. 1992. Tick infestations of livestock in India and their control. Insect Science and its Applications 13(4): 649-655.

Choubdar N, Oshaghi M A, Rafinejad J, Pourmand M R, Ravasan N M, Vaziri M S, Telmadarraiy Z, Karimian F, Koosha M, Foroushani A R, Masoomi S, Arzamani K, Nejati J, Karami M, Mozaffari E, Abadi Y S, Asl E M, Taghilou B, Shirani M. 2019. Effect of meteorological factors on Hyalommaspecies composition and their host preference, seasonal prevalence and infection status to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Iran. Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 13(3): 268-283.

Daemon E, Prata M C A, Faccini J L H. 1998. Goats as alternative host. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria 7(2): 123-128. Debbarma A, Pandit S, Jas R, Baidya S, Mandal S C, Jana P S. 2018. Prevalence of hard tick infestations in cattle of West Bengal, India. Biological Rhythm Research 49(5): 655-662.

Eyo J E, Ekeh F N, Ivoke N, Atama C I, Onah I E, Ezenwaji N E, Ikele C B. 2014. Survey of tick infestation of cattle at four selected grazing sites in the tropics. Global Veterinaria 12(4): 479-486.

Fraga A B, De Alencar M M, De Figueiredo L A, Razook A G, Noely J, Cyrillo S G. 2003. Genetic analysis of the infestation of Caracu female cattle breed by cattle tick (Boophilus microplus). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnica 32(6): 1578-1586.

Geevarghese G, Fernandes S, Kulkarni S M. 1997. A check list of Indian ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 67: 566-574.

Geevarghese G, Mishra A C. 2011. Haemaphysalis ticks of India, 21-226. Elsevier.

Islam M K, Alim M A, Tsuji N, Mondal M M H. 2006. An investigation into the distribution, host-preference and population density of ixodid ticks affecting domestic animals in Bangladesh. Tropical Animal Health and Production 38(6): 485-490.

Kakati P, Sarmah P C, Ray D, Bhattacharjee K, Sharma R K, Barkalita L M, Sarma D K, Baishya B C, Borah P, Stanley B. 2015. Emergence of Oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Microplusin Assam, India. Veterinary World 8(9): 1099-1104.

Kho, K L, Koh F X, Jaafar T, Nizam Q N H, Tay S T. 2015. Prevalence and molecular heterogeneity of Bartonella Bovisin cattle and Haemaphysalis Bispinosaticks in Peninsular Malaysia. BMC Veterinary Research 11: 153.

Kumar K G A, Ravindran R, Johns J, Chandy G, Rajagopal K, Chandrasekhar L, George A J Ghosh S. 2018. Ixodid tick vectors of wild mammals and reptiles of Southern India. Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 12(3): 276-285.

Kumar K, Balakrishnan N, Sharma A K. 2014. Studies on the vertical distribution of ticks of domestic animals and their public health importance in Nilgiri Hills and adjoining areas of Tamil Nadu State (India). International Journal of Zoology. Doi: https://doi. org/10.1155/2014/359812.

Monfared A L, Mahmoodi M, Fattahi R. 2015. Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle, sheep and goats in Ilam County, Ilam Province, Iran. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 39(1): 37-40.

Nair A S, Ravindran R, Lakshmanan B, Sreekumar C, Kumar S S, Raju R, Tresamol P V, Vimalkumar M B, Saseendranath M R. 2013. Bovine carriers of Anaplasma Marginaleand Anaplasma Bovisin South India. Tropical Biomedicine. 30(1): 105-112.

Nyangiwe N, Horak I G. 2007. Goats as alternative hosts of cattle ticks. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 74: 1-7.

Prakasan K, Ramani N. 2007. Tick parasites of domestic animals of Kerala, South India. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2(2): 74 -80

Prakasan K. 2015. An investigation on first outbreak of Kyasanur Forest disease in Wayanad District of Kerala. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 3(6): 239-240.

Puvarajan B. 2017. Studies on efficacy of anthelmentic in treatment of sucking lice and tick infestation in organised farm of Tellicherry goats. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 5(6): 327-330.

Riaz M, Tasawar Z, Ullah M Z. 2017. An epidemiological survey on diversity and seasonal distribution of hard ticks in sheep and goats in Multan, Pakistan. Journal of Biodiversity and Environment Science (JBES) 10(3): 50-61.

Sen P. 1938. A Checklist and Host- List of Ixodoidea (Ticks) occurring in India. Indian Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 8: 133-149.

Shyma K P, Kumar S, Sharma A K, Ray D D, Ghosh S. 2012. Acaricide resistance status in Indian isolates of Hyalomma Anatolicum. Experimental and Applied Acarology 58(4): 471-481.

Shyma K P, Stanley B, Ray D D, Ghosh S. 2013. Prevalence of cattle and buffalo ticks in Northern Kerala. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 27(1): 55-56.

Soundararajan C, Nagarajan K, Muthukrishnan S, Prakash M A. 2018. Tick infestation on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare in Tamil Nadu. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 42(1): 127-129.

Trapido H, Varma M G R, Rajagopalan P K, Singh K R P, Rebello M J. 1964. A guide to the identification of all stages of the Haemaphysalisticks of South India. Bulletin of Entomological Research 55(2): 249-270.

Waskel S, Gaur U. 2015. Incidence of theileriosis in cattles and buffaloes during rainy season. European Journal of Experimental Biology 5(8): 71-73.