Effect of Elevated Temperature on the Bionomics of Aenasius arizonensis Girault


  • Thimmegowda M. N. Division of Entomology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012
  • Sachin S. Suroshe Division of Entomology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012
  • Kiran Kumar G. N. Division of Entomology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012




Phenacoccus solenopsis, Aenasius arizonensis, elevated temperature, bionomics, cotton, parasitoid, mummies, biological control, morphometrics, length, breadth, head, antenna, hind tibial, parasitisation, fecundity, longevity, sex ratio


An experiment was conducted to know the effect of thermal stress on the biological attributes of the parasitoid Aenasius arizonensis Girault of the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. The results revealed that temperature showed a significant effect on the biological fitness traits of the A. arizonensis; when exposed to 32°C, parasitisation, fecundity, female sex ratio and adult longevity. At 32°C these viz., parasitisation (77%), sex ratio (63.46) and days taken from oviposition to mummy formation (6.4) were found to be the highest. Other fitness traits like fecundity (142.8) and developmental duration (11.2 - males, 12.6 - females) were found to be the highest at 27°C. These parameters gradually decreased with increasing temperature, indicating a negative relationship. Morphometrics of adults revealed that mean length and breadth of mummies, total length and breadth of adult male and females, total width of head, total length of antenna and total hind tibial length were maximum at 27°C as compared to those observed with high temperature treatments. Thus high temperature was observed to have an adverse effect on the growth and development of the parasitoid.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

M. N., T., Suroshe, S. S., & G. N., K. K. (2024). Effect of Elevated Temperature on the Bionomics of <i>Aenasius arizonensis</i> Girault. Indian Journal of Entomology, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.55446/IJE.2024.1903



Research Communications


Aga T M, TambeV J, Nagrare V S, Naikwadi B. 2016. Parasitoid, Aenasius arizonensis (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae): Its biology, morphometrics, host stage preference and use in biological control. Journal of Biological Control 30(2): 91-98.

Ahmed M Z, Ma J, Qiu B L, He R R, Wu M T, Liang F, Zhao J P, Lin L, Hu X N, Lv L H, Breinholt J W, Lu YY. 2015. Genetic record for a recent invasion of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Asia. Environmental Entomology 44(3): 907-918.

Amarasekare K G, Mannion C M, Osborne L S, Epsky N D. 2008. Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four host plant species under laboratory conditions. Environmental Entomology 37(3): 630-635.

CABI. 2015. Invasive species compendium datasheets, maps, images, abstracts. http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/109097(15/9/2016).

Campbell A B, Frazer D, Gilbert N, Gutierrez A P, Mackauer M. 1974. Temperature requirements of some aphids and their parasites. Journal of Applied Ecology 11(2): 431-438.

Deng Y X, Tsai J H. 1998. Development of Lysiphlebia japonica (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), a parasitoid of Toxoptera citricida (Homoptera: Aphididae) at five temperatures. Florida Entomologist 81: 415-423.

Dhillon M K, Sharma H C. 2009. Temperature influences the performance and effectiveness of field and laboratory strains of the ichneumonid parasitoid, Campoletis chlorideae. Biocontrol 54(6): 743-750.

Fand B B, Suroshe S S. 2015. The invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley: A threat to tropical and subtropical agricultural and horticultural production systems. Crop protection 69: 34-43

Gautam R D, Suroshe S S, Gautam S, Saxena U, Fand B B, Gupta T. 2009. Fortuitous biological control of exotic mealybug Phenococcus solenopsis- A boon for Indian growers. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences 17(2): 473-473.

Geethu S, Suroshe S S. 2020. Feeding potential and biology of six spotted ladybird beetle Cheilomenes sexmaculata on cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis. Indian Journal of Entomology 82(2): 302-305

Gordan H T. 1999. Growth and development of insects. pp. 55-82.

Hayat M. 2009. Description of a new species of Aenasius Walker (Hymenoptera: Eneyrtidae), parasitoid of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in India. Biosystematica 3(1): 21-26.

He L F, Li P, Zhou Z S, Xu Z F. 2018. Temperature-dependent parasitism and development in Aenasius arizonensis Girault (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a solitary endoparasitoid of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Pest Management 64(1): 45-50.

Hira H, ul Abdin Z, Tayyib M, Arshad M, Hussain F, Abbas S K. 2023. Effects of varying temperature on the reproduction and survival of mealybug parasitoid, Aenasius arizonensis (hymenoptera: encyrtidae). Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 33(3): 553-61.

Huffaker A C, Berryman A, Turchin P. 1999. Dynamics and regulation of insect populations. pp. 269-312.

Iqbal M S, Abdin Z, Arshad M, Abbas S K, Tahir M, Jamil A, Manzoor A. 2016. The Role of Parasitoid Age on the Fecundity and Sex Ratio of the Parasitoid, Aenasius bambawalei (Hayat) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology 48(1): 67-72.

Kahya D, Keçe A F, Ulusoy M R. 2021. The determination of developmental time, parasitism rate at different temperatures and parasitism behavior at constant temperature of Aenasius arizonensis Girault 1915 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Plant Protection Bulletin 61(3): 36-41.

Logan J A, Wollkind D J, Hoyt S C, Tanigoshi L K. 1976. An analytical model for description of temperature dependent phenomenon in arthropods. Environmental Entomology 5(6): 1133-1140.

Mizell R F, Nebeker T E. 1978. Estimating the developmental time of the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis as a function of field temperatures. Environmental Entomology 7(4): 592-595.

Poorani J, Rajeshwari S K, Gupta A. 2009. Notes on diagnosis and biology of Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of the invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Biological Control 23(4): 463-466.

Qiu B, Zhou Z S, Luo S P, Xu Z F. 2012. Effect of temperature on development, survival, and fecundity of Microplitis manilae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology 41(3): 433-730.

Sangle P M, Korat D M, Patel B H. 2013. A note on morphometry and post larval life stages of Aenasius bambawalei Hayat. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 26(1): 151-154.

Soumia P S. 2011. Influence of temperature and humidity on Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) – A potential parasitoid of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. Thesis: submitted to Post Graduate School. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi. 31 pp.

Suroshe S S, Gautam R D, Fand B B. 2013. Natural enemy complex associated with the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting different host plants in India. Journal of Biological Control 27(3): 204-210.

Sweetee K, Suroshe S S, Dinesh K, Budhlakoti N, Venkanna Y. 2021. Foraging behaviour of Scymnus coccivora Ayyar against cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28(7): 3799-3805.

Tunca H O C, Kilincer N. 2010. Temperature dependent development of the egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus oculator on the factitious host, Ephestia cautella. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 34(5): 421-428.

Venkanna Y, Suroshe S S, Bhagyashree S N, Sweetee K. 2020. Biology of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on cotton aphid Aphis gossypii. Indian Journal of Entomology 82(1): 75-79.

Vennila S, Agarwal M. 2013. Spices as host crops of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis. Annual of Plant Protection Sciences 22(1): 190-239.

www.cotcorp.org.in/national_cotton.aspx (accessed on 16.08.2022)

Xia P L, Wang B, Xie X F, Feng Y, Huang Y. 2022. Effect of temperature on survival and immature development of Arma chinensis. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 25(3): 101927.

Zhang J, Huang J, Lu Y, Xia T. 2016. Effects of temperature and host stage on the parasitization rate and offspring sex ratio of Aenasius bambawalei Hayat in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. PeerJ 4: e1586.

Zhang Y B, Zhang G F, Liu W X, Wan F H. 2019. Variable temperatures across different stages have novel effects on behavioral response and population viability in a host-feeding parasitoid. Scientific Reports 9(1): 2202.

Most read articles by the same author(s)