Diversity of Pollinators on Sunflower


  • Deepayan Padhy Department of Entomology, M S Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi 761211, Odisha
  • Chitta Ranjan Satapathy 2Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, Odisha
  • Shimantini Borkataki Department of Entomology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785013, Assam.




Apis cerana indica, Apis dorsata, Tetragonula iridipennis, butterflies, relative abundance, dominance status, diversity index, ecology, Simpson’s index, Shannon-Weiner Index (H').


Sunflower crop was grown during rabi 2021 and summer 2022 at the M S Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Gajapati, Odisha. Investigation has been made on diversity of different pollinating agents associated with sunflower by observing their abundance, diversity, percentage contribution following the statistical diversity indices. The present study revealed eighteen different pollinators associated with sunflower. The Indian honey bee, Apis cerana indica (F)was recorded as the most dominant hymenopteran pollinator followed by the rock bee Apis dorsata (F)from family Apidae. The foraging activity of A. c. indica was observed to be maximum during mid flowering stage (1.72±1.23 and 2.78±1.81 bees/capitulum/min in 1st and 2nd season, respectively) with highest activity during 01:00-02:00 PM (3.02 bees/ capitulum/min.) and 10:00 to 11:00 AM (4.42 bees/capitulum/ min) during first and second seasons respectively. The Apidae family members’ i.e. A. c. indica and A. dorsata have attained eudominant and other pollinators were belonging mostly to the recedent and subrecedent classes based on dominance status. The diversity indices showed mid flowering stage attracted the most diversified group of pollinators.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Padhy, D., Satapathy, C. R., & Borkataki, S. (2024). Diversity of Pollinators on Sunflower. Indian Journal of Entomology, 86(1), 98–104. https://doi.org/10.55446/IJE.2024.1631



Research Articles


Adeoye O, Pitan O. 2020. Diversity of insect pollinators of sunflower (Helianthus annus L: Asteraceae) in response to host plant nutrient enhancement. Tropical Agriculture 97: 126-136.

Arya D R, Sihag R C, Yadav P R. 1994. Role of insect pollination in seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Indian Bee Journal 56 (3/4): 179-182.

Basak S and Mandal S K. 2018. Identification and record of insect pollinators of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in new alluvial zone of West Bengal. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 6(2): 2415-2417.

Bhowmik B, Bhadra K. 2015. Insect pollinators and their role on crop yield and quality of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus, PAC-361) from West Bengal, India. International Journal of Current Science 18: 76-87.

Food and Agriculture Organization. 2023. World honeybee day. Available at: https://www.fao.org/world-bee-day/en/

Gallai N, Salles J M, Settele J and Vaissière B E. 2009. Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics 68(3): 810-821. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.06.014

Goswami V, Khan M S, Usha. 2013. Studies on pollinator fauna and their relative abundance of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Applied and Natural Science 5(2): 294-296. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v5i2.319

Hemanth K R, Srinivas R K M, Shishira D, Eswarappa G. 2020. Role of Apis cerana Fab. in sunflower pollination. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 8(5): 648-654.

Hussain A, Owayss A A, Khan K A, Alqarni A S. 2015. Insect Visitors and Abundance of Four Species of Apis on Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. in Pakistan. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 67(2): 235-240.

Jadhav J A, Sreedevi K, Prasad P R. 2011. Insect pollinator diversity and abundance in sunflower ecosystem Current Biotica 5(3): 344-350.

Jakiewicz B. 2003. Occurrence of aphids on Cornus alba L. Hortorum Cultus 2(1): 95-110.

Kasina M, Nderitu J, Nyamasyo G, Oronje M L. 2007. Sunflower pollinators in Kenya: Does diversity influence seed yield? African Crop Science Conference Proceeding 8: 1149-1153.

Krishna K V, Prashanth Y, Yogeeswarudu B, Maurya K K. 2014. Pollination efficiency of honey bees in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Agriculture and Life Sciences 1(2): 92-95.

Mahavir G. 1999. Relative abundance and diversity of different pollinating insects on sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L.). Annals of Biology (Ludhiana) 15(1): 113-115.

Mehmood K, Muhammad N, Ahmad M,Butt S J. 2018. Diversity of sunflower insect pollinators and their foraging behavior under field conditions. Uludag Bee Journal 18(1): 14-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31467/uluaricilik.427584

Nayak S K, Moharana R L, Khura N. 2022. Insect pests complex and their predators on sunflower in the western undulating zone of Odisha. The Pharma Innovation Journal SP-11(10): 1818-1820.

Nderitu J, Nyamasyo G, Kasina M, Oronje M L. 2008. Diversity of sunflower pollinators and their effect on seed yield in Makueni District, Eastern Kenya. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 6(2): 271-278. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2008062-318

Rasheed M T, Inayatullah M, Shah B, Ahmed N, Huma, Z,Ahmed S. 2015. Identification and record of insect pollinators on two cultivars of sunflower. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 3(6): 178-179.

Satyanarayana A R, Seetharam A, 1982. Studies on the method of hybrid seed production in oilseed of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) 3.Role and activity of insect visitors in pollination and seed set. Seed Science Technology 10: 13-17.

Shannon C E, Weaver W. 1949. The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois: 144.

Simpson E H. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163: 688. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/163688a0

Swaminathan R, Bharadwaj S C. 1982. Bee pollinators of sunflower and their foraging behaviour. Indian Bee Journal 44(2): 32-34.

Toit A P, Holm E. 1992. Pollination activity and behaviour of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in commercial sunflower in the Transvaal. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 9(4): 168-172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02571862.1992.10634623

Valido A, Rodríguez M C, Jordano P. 2019. Honeybees disrupt the structure and functionality of plant-pollinator networks. Scientific Reports 9: 4711-4721. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41271-5

Yasmeen S, Roseleen S S J, Justin C G L, Eevera T. 2021. Studies on floral handling time of pollinators on different treatments in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 9(1): 1283-1287.

Most read articles by the same author(s)