Diversity of Butterfly Pollinators in Agroecosystems of Kumaun Region


  • Deeksha Arya Department of Zoology, D S B Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital 263002, Uttarakhand
  • Deepika Goswami Department of Zoology, D S B Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital 263002, Uttarakhand
  • Shikha Bora Department of Zoology, D S B Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital 263002, Uttarakhand
  • Rekha Department of Zoology, D S B Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital 263002, Uttarakhand
  • B R Kaushal Department of Zoology, D S B Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital 263002, Uttarakhand




Lepidoptera, agroecosystem, species richness, evenness, distribution, abundance, pollination, species composition, diversity indices, Pieris canidia indica


This study examined the diversity, abundance and evenness of butterfly pollinators in Kumaun region, Uttarakhand from March 2019 to February 2020. A total of 394 butterflies, representing 40 species and five families were collected. Nymphalidae was the most dominant family with 19 species, followed by Pieridae (9 species), Lycaenidae (9 species), Papilionidae (2 species), and Hesperiidae (1 species), respectively. Pieris canidia indica (Evans) was the most abundant species, constituting 38.3% of the total individuals. Shannon-Wiener diversity index was observed to be maximum in Site-1 (H’=1.37) than in Site-2 (H’=1.12). Similarly, evenness was maximum in Site-1 (E=0.457), than in Site-2 (E=0.333). In addition, significant pollinator species in crops have been identified in agroecosystems.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Arya, D., Goswami, D., Bora, S., Rekha, & Kaushal, B. R. (2023). Diversity of Butterfly Pollinators in Agroecosystems of Kumaun Region. Indian Journal of Entomology, 85(3), 793–797. https://doi.org/10.55446/IJE.2021.359



Research Communications


Abrol D P. 2007. Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. as determined by the energetics of nectar production in different cultivars of Brassica campestris var. toria. Journal of Apicultural Science 51(2).

Aizen M A, Garibaldi L A, Cunningham S A, Klein A M. 2008. Long-term global trends in crop yield and production reveal no current pollination shortage but increasing pollinator dependency. Current Biology 18(20): 1572-1575.

Arya M K, Dayakrishna, Chaudhary R. 2014. Species richness and diversity of Butterflies in and around Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2(3): 153-159.

Arya M K, Dayakrishna. 2017. Species richness and diversity of butterflies in the landscape of Nandhour Wildlife Sanctuary, Nainital, Uttarakhand. Journal of Environment and Bio-Sciences 31(2): 307-315.

Arya M K, Verma A. 2020. Pattern in distribution of butterflies assemblages at different habitats of Corbett Tiger Reserve, Northern India. Tropical Ecology 61(2): 180-186.

Bhowmik B, Mitra B, Bhandra K. 2014. Diversity of insect pollinators and their effect on the crop yield Brassica Juncea L., NP5-93 from southern West Bengal. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews 5(4): 172-177.

Das B J, Paul K, Baruah N, Basumatary B K. 2018. Diversity study of insect pollinators of rabi crops cultivated in surrounding areas of Barpeta town in Assam, India. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews 5(4): 172-177.

Duara P, Kalita J. 2013. An investigation on the pollinating insects of medicinally important plants. International Journal of Life Science, Biotechnology and Pharmacy Research 2: 318-324.

Free J B.1993. Insect pollination of crops. Academic press, London, UK.

Garia A, Goswami D, Kaushal B R. 2016. Diversity and relative abundance of Lepidoptera in an Oak forest of Kumaun Himalaya. The Journal of Zoology studies 3(5): 87-94

Godfray H C. 2002. Challenges for Taxonomy, Nature 417: 17-19.

Gullan P J, Cranston P S. 2010. The Insects: An outline of entomology. 4th edition. Wiley- Blackwell Publishers. 565 pp.

Hill M O. 1973. Diversity and evenness: A unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology 54: 427-432.

Jach M, Balke M. 2008. Global diversity of water beetles (Coleoptera) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 419-442.

Kapkoti B, Joshi R K, Rawal R S. 2016. Variations in the abundance and diversity of insects in apple orchards of Kumaun, Western Himalaya, India. Current Science 110(3): 438-443.

Kearns C A, Inouye D W, Waser N M. 1998. Endangered mutualism: The conservation of plant pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology Systems 29: 83-112.

Kehimkar I D. 2008. Book of Indian butterflies. Oxford University Press. 497 pp.

Klein A M, Vaissiere B E, Cane J H, Steffan- Dewenter I, Cunningham S A, Kremen C. Tscharntke T. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the royal society B: biological sciences 274(1608): 303-313.

Kumar P. 2008 Handbook on Common Butterflies of Uttarakhand. Zoological survey of India, Kolkata. 136 pp.

Kunte K. 2000. India, a lifescape: butterflies of peninsular India. Universities Press. 254 pp.

Martínez-Adriano C A, Díaz-Castelazo C, Aguirre-Jaimes A. 2018. Flower-mediated plant-butterfly interactions in a heterogeneous tropical coastal ecosystem. Peerj (5493) 6: 54903.

Mayur A M, Hattappa S, Mahadevamurthy M, Chakravarthy A K. 2013. The impact of newly established Bangalore international airport on local biodiversity. Global journal of biology, agriculture and health sciences 2(2): 49-53.

Meena D S. 2017. Study on the species composition and status of free ranging butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in Pt. GB Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital, Uttarakhand. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 5(4): 1135-1139.

Patil K G, Kanekar A, Shende V A, Bhimrao U S. 2017. A report on butterfly diversity of Rawanwadi Reservoir, Bhandara (Maharashtra), India. Arthropods 6(1): 21-28.

Pollard E. 1991. Monitoring butterfly numbers. In Monitoring for conservation and ecology. Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 87-111.

Rader R, Bartomeus I, Garibaldi L A, Garrat M P D, Howlett B G, Winfree R, Woyciechowski M. 2016. Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(1): 146-151.

Risely S. 1986. The influence of Herbivores on Seasonal Leaf Abscisson and Petiole Clipping. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 3: 152-162.

Robbins R K, Opler P A. 1997. Butterfly diversity and a preliminary comparison with bird and mammal diversity. Biodiversity II: understanding and protecting our biological resources. pp. 69-82.

Sanwal C S, Dhakate P M, Joshi K K, Lakshmi M N. 2017. Habitat conservation through butterfly zone: A new approach to in-situ conservation of butterfly diversity. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 5(6): 2195-2199.

Shannon C E, Wiener W. 1963. The Mathematical theory of communication. University of Juionis Press, Urbana 117.

Singh A P. 2011. Book of butterflies of India. Om Books International Publication.183 pp.

Soler R, Schaper S V, Bezemer T M, Cortesero A M, Hoffmeister T S, Van der Putten W H, Vet L E, Harvey J A. 2009. Influence of presence and spatial arrangement of belowground insects on host‐plant selection of aboveground insects: a field study. Ecological Entomology 34(3): 339-345.

Tiple A D. 2011. Butterflies of Vidarbha region Maharashtra, India; a review with and implication for conservation. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(1): 1469-1477.

Tyagi R, Joshi P C, Joshi N C. 2011. Butterfly diversity of district Nainital, Uttarakhand (India). Journal of Environment and Bio-Science 25(2): 273-278.

Usha A U, John V K. 2015. A study on insect diversity of a selected area in Wadakkancherry (Thrissur, Kerala). The Journal of Zoology Studies 2(3): 38-50.

Most read articles by the same author(s)